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Subjects Oil wells -- Acidization. Gas wells -- Acidization. Notes Includes index. Bibliography: p. View online Borrow Buy Freely available Show 0 more links Set up My libraries How do I set up "My libraries"?

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Black Mountain Library. May not be open to the public ; BROC Barr Smith Library. Open to the public ; UNSW Library. None of your libraries hold this item. Found at these bookshops Searching - please wait We were unable to find this edition in any bookshop we are able to search. Acknowledgments We want to thank Exxon Co.

Also, we appreciate the help of various SPE-AIME members and personnel, particularly the Monograph Review Committee, in providing helpful suggestions on organization and editing of the monograph. Many people have contributed to the successful completion of this monograph; therefore, it is impossible to recognize them all. Both D. Nierode and Eo J. Novotny of Exxon Production Research Co.

During preparation, the manuscript was used as a text for a graduate course at The U. The students taking that course provided many helpful comments and verified example calculations.

They are Essam M. Abdallah, Hosny H.

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Finally, this monograph could not have been prepared without the able assistance of the Exxon Production Research Co. In particular, the efforts of N.

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Parker and P. Henry were essential. Foreword In recent years, stimulation techniques have become increasingly complex and a better understanding of the individual mechanisms that contribute to the over-all treatment effectiveness has evolved. Much of this development has been at the research level and is not totally assimilated into general field practice.

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This monograph has been prepared to serve as a basic reference for both the field and research engineer interested in developing a fundamental understanding of the acidizing process and procedures for designing acid treatments to increase well productivity. Accordingly, we have attempted to structure the monograph to serve both groups.

Some chapters provide a comprehensive review of the science and technology that serve as bases for understanding the fundamentals of acid stimulation. Others are written for the field engineer and stress design procedures and the proper selection of fluids and additives. These procedures employ practices in wide-spread use in the United States and, to a lesser exten t, in use throughout the free world. Topics that were covered in detail by G. Howard and C. In particular, the reader interested in field application of acid fracturing techniques should read Chapters I, 2, 3, and 8 in Hydraulic Fracturing.

These chapters lay the groundwork for material on acid fracturing presented in this monograph. We strongly urge all readers of the Acidizlng Fundamentals monograph to start with Chapters 2 and 3, which review acidizing methods. The reader can then proceed to Chapters 5 and 7 for a discussion of acid fracturing fundamentals and design procedures and to Chapter 9 or 10 for a discussion of the design of matrix acid treatments for sandstone and carbonate formations.

Chapters 4, 6, and 8 are fundamental chapters that will be of primary interest to the reader requiring more detail. Although Chapters 4,6, and 8 present the groundwork for design procedures given elsewhere, one should not have to read these chapters before reading the design sections.

Chapters 1, 11, and 12 cover specialized topics that will be of general interest history of acidization, acid additi ves, and economics.


Wherever possible, examples have been provided to clarify the application of the models or concepts presented in this monograph. In some instances, models used in the examples are not the most comprehensive available since we have limited our use to those that require only simple arithmetic manipulations with a hand calculator.

Throughout the monograph, equations are gi ven in nondimensional form un less otherwise noted. Because of the familiarity of our audience with conventional engineering units. Introduction fro m the original well-hole. The patent called for "the use of commercial muriatic or hydrochloric acid which contains from thirty to forty percent by weight of the acid gas HCl. To avoid returning unspent acid to the wellbore, he proposed "to introduce an alkaline liquid preferably milk of lime " to neutralize any remaining trace of acid. The advantage of neutralization, he went on, "is to avoid the danger of corroding the subsequently used apparatus.

Finally, Frasch anticipated the need for a rubber packer to pack off the annulus and force the acid into the formation to be treated. Frasch and Van Dyke conceived the acidizing process as a means to increase production in oil wells in the Lima, Ohio, area, which at the time accounteci for almost one-third of domestic production' Some of the wells in this area produced little in compur ixon w ith more prol ifie offset wells.

The Oil City Derrick earned a feature "t1'ry' that explained the process in detail. Oh io. However one evaluates the history of well stimulation processes, acidizing must be considered among the oldest techniques still in modern use. Only nitro-shooting predates it. Other techniques such as hydraulic fracturing were developed much more recently. Knowledge of acidizing as a well stimulation method began in the last century.

Earliest records indicate that the first acid treatments were probably performed in Herman Frasch, who at the time was chief chemist at Standard Oil Co. Of all the patents on acidizing, the first - the one issued to Frasch on March 17, ,3 - is perhaps the most instructive. Recorded in that brief document are many of the elements of present-day acid treatments. Not as important technically, but of historical interest, is a similar patent employing sulfuric acid, obtained by John W.

Van Dyke, general manager of Solar Refinery, and a close friend of Frasch. Subsequently, Frasch and Van Dyke each assigned the other one-half interest in their respective patents, possibly revealing some doubt in the inventors' minds as to which process would be successful 4 1. The Frasch patent involved a reagent hydrochloric acid that would react with limestone to produce soluble products - carbon dioxide and calcium chlor ide - that then could be removed from the Iormauon as the well fluids were produced.

In contrast. In his patent, he described "a new and superior method based upon chemical action in which J chemical reagent attacks the limestone-rock. However, as the acid began to perform its work, the channels in the rock were gradually increased so that at the finish the rock would readily take six barrels per hour.

The increase has been permanent as the well is holding up. Finally, Pure proposed acidizing one of its own wells. The test site was decided upon and on Feb.

Acidizing Fundamentals

Acid was brought to the wellsite on a tank wagon equipped with a wooden tank 36 in. To this acid, 2 gal of an arsenic acid inhibitor were added. The acid was transferred from the tank truck to the wellbore by siphoning with a garden hose.

Hydraulic Fracturing Stimulation

About half of the gal of acid was siphoned into the tubing. This was followed by 6 bbl of oil pumped into the tubing with a hand-operated pump after the acid. The well was shut in over night and swabbed in the next morning. A large quantity of emulsion was removed. The remaining acid was siphoned into the tubing and displaced by oil flush. The well, which was dead before treatment, subsequently produced as much as 16 BID. Other wells were later treated with acid. Some responded better than the first. The next significant use of hydrochloric acid in well treatment took place in in Oklahoma by the Gypsy Oil Co.

For a technique useful for scale removal, Gypsy sought the advice of the Mellon Institute. Blain Wescott reported on behalf of the Institute suggesting the use of hydrochloric acid as a solvent for the scale. Interestingly, Wescott's report recommended the use of an inhibitor, Rodine No. I IS use declined, however, in the early 's with the decline in oil prices.

Interest in acidizing spread rapidly and companies were formed to provide this service. Taking its name from the Dow Well Service Group, the first two words were combined to Dowell, but the pronunciation remained the same; thus, Dowell Inc. Each of these companies did a rapidly expanding business. What might be described as the modem era of acidizing began in in discussions between the Pure Oil Co.

Pure had oil property in Michigan und an active exploration program in the area. Dow had bn ne wells in the same area. Pure requested operational. Dow, having no interest in oil production at that time, agreed to make its on ne-well files available to Pure. In subsequent discuss ions between Pure and Dow.

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Pure's geologist, W. Thomas, knowing that hydrochloric acid would react with limestone, ami apparently unaware of the earlier work by Frasch, suggested that well productivity from limestone formations might be improved by acid treatment. Success with acids in limestone brought many to think of trearruenrx useful for sandstone formations. ZZt In this proces-, , hyurofluoric acid was generated either in the wellbore or ir; the lormation to avoid the danger of handling it at the surface Wilson recognized the ability of hydrofluoric acid ".

Pateru :'Jo 2, He must have for formaclog up the formation.