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The intercardinal also called the intermediate directions and, historically, ordinal directions are northeast NE , southeast SE , southwest SW , and northwest NW. The intermediate direction of every set of intercardinal and cardinal direction is called a secondary intercardinal direction , the eight shortest points in the compass rose that is shown to the right e.

To keep to a bearing is not, in general, the same as going in a straight direction along a great circle. Conversely, one can keep to a great circle and the bearing may change. Thus the bearing of a straight path crossing the North Pole changes abruptly at the Pole from North to South. When travelling East or West, it is only on the Equator that one can keep East or West and be going straight without the need to steer.

Anywhere else, maintaining latitude requires a change in direction, requires steering. However, this change in direction becomes increasingly negligible as one moves to lower latitudes. The Earth has a magnetic field which is approximately aligned with its axis of rotation.

Understanding Direction Based on the Sun - Geography Realm

A magnetic compass is a device that uses this field to determine the cardinal directions. Magnetic compasses are widely used, but only moderately accurate. The north pole of the magnetic needle points towards the geographic north pole of the earth and vice versa. This is because the geographic north pole of the earth lies very close to the magnetic south pole of the earth. This south magnetic pole of the earth located at an angle of 17 degrees to the geographic north pole attracts the north pole of the magnetic needle and vice versa.

The position of the Sun in the sky can be used for orientation if the general time of day is known.

North, South East and West Sikkim - Gangtok Forum

In the morning the Sun rises roughly in the east due east only on the equinoxes and tracks upwards. In the evening it sets in the west, again roughly and only due west exactly on the equinoxes. In the middle of the day, it is to the south for viewers in the Northern Hemisphere , who live north of the Tropic of Cancer, and the north for those in the Southern Hemisphere , who live south of the Tropic of Capricorn.

This method does not work very well when closer to the equator i. Conversely, at low latitudes in the southern hemisphere the sun may be to the south of the observer in summer. In these locations, one needs first to determine whether the sun is moving from east to west through north or south by watching its movements—left to right means it is going through south while the right to left means it is going through north; or one can watch the sun's shadows.

If they move clockwise, the sun will be in the south at midday, and if they move anticlockwise, then the sun will be in the north at midday. Because of the Earth's axial tilt , no matter what the location of the viewer, there are only two days each year when the sun rises precisely due east.

These days are the equinoxes. On all other days, depending on the time of year, the sun rises either north or south of true east and sets north or south of true west. For all locations, the sun is seen to rise north of east and set north of west from the Northward equinox to the Southward equinox , and rise south of east and set south of west from the Southward equinox to the Northward equinox. There is a traditional method by which an analogue watch can be used to locate north and south. The Sun appears to move in the sky over a hour period while the hour hand of a hour clock dial takes twelve hours to complete one rotation.

In the northern hemisphere, if the watch is rotated so that the hour hand points toward the Sun, the point halfway between the hour hand and 12 o'clock will indicate south. For this method to work in the southern hemisphere, the 12 is pointed toward the Sun and the point halfway between the hour hand and 12 o'clock will indicate north. During daylight saving time , the same method can be employed using 1 o'clock instead of The difference between local time and zone time, the equation of time , and near the tropics the non-uniform change of the Sun's azimuth at different times of day limit the accuracy of this method.

A portable sundial can be used as a more accurate instrument than a watch for determining the cardinal directions.

north south east west Vector

Since the design of a sundial takes account of the latitude of the observer, it can be used at any latitude. See: Sundial Using a sundial as a compass. Astronomy provides a method for finding direction at night.

Cardinal Directions Song

All the stars appear to lie on the imaginary Celestial sphere. Because of the rotation of the Earth, the Celestial Sphere appears to rotate around an axis passing through the North and South poles of the Earth. This axis intersects the Celestial Sphere at the North and South Celestial poles , which appear to the observer to lie directly above due North and South respectively on the horizon.

In either hemisphere, observations of the night sky show that the visible stars appear to be moving in circular paths, caused by the rotation of the Earth. This is best seen in a long exposure photograph , which is obtained by locking the shutter open for most of the intensely dark part of a moonless night. The resulting photograph reveals a multitude of concentric arcs portions of perfect circles from which the exact center can be readily derived, and which corresponds to the Celestial pole , which lies directly above the position of the true pole North or South on the horizon.

A published photograph exposed for nearly 8 hours demonstrates this effect. The Northern Celestial pole is currently but not permanently within a fraction of 1 degree of the bright star Polaris. The exact position of the pole changes over thousands of years because of the precession of the equinoxes.

Polaris is also known as the North Star , and is generically called a pole star or lodestar. Polaris is only visible during fair weather at night to inhabitants of the Northern Hemisphere. The asterism " Big Dipper " may be used to find Polaris. The 2 corner stars of the "pan" those opposite from the handle point above the top of the "pan" to Polaris. While observers in the Northern hemisphere can use the star Polaris to determine the Northern celestial pole, the Octans constellation's South Star is hardly visible enough to use for navigation.

For this reason, the preferred alternative is to use the constellation Crux The Southern Cross. The southern celestial pole lies at the intersection of a the line along the long axis of crux i. At the very end of the 19th century, in response to the development of battleships with large traversable guns that affected magnetic compasses, and possibly to avoid the need to wait for fair weather at night to precisely verify one's alignment with true north , the gyrocompass was developed for shipboard use.

Since it finds true, rather than magnetic, north, it is immune to interference by local or shipboard magnetic fields. Its major disadvantage is that it depends on technology that many individuals might find too expensive to justify outside the context of a large commercial or military operation. It also requires a continuous power supply for its motors, and that it can be allowed to sit in one location for a period of time while it properly aligns itself.

Near the end of the 20th century, the advent of satellite-based Global Positioning Systems GPS provided yet another means for any individual to determine true north accurately. The government agencies responsible for the satellites continuously monitor and adjust them to maintain their accurate alignment with the Earth.

There are consumer versions of the receivers that are attractively priced. Since there are no periodic access fees, or other licensing charges, they have become widely used. GPSR functionality is becoming more commonly added to other consumer devices such as mobile phones. Antique compass on vintage style fabrikasimf. Set of flags on a pole with shadow isolated itler World logo templat user Retro nautical compass tartila Tattoo art.

World map element infographic, infochart business information kornn 6. Hand drawn vintage compass freepik 60k Hand drawn retro map macrovector 13k Golden flat map compass collection freepik 11k Compass design evasplace 54k Simple compasses set freepik 63k Elegant compass freepik 36k Flat compass collection freepik 8k Flat map compass collection freepik 16k Flat map compass background freepik 2k Isolated flat compass freepik 1k 9.

Vintage compass collection freepik 3k Collection of flat compass freepik 3k Hand drawn compass freepik 7k This plots the responses on a map of the US, with similar answers denoted by the same color. The team investigate this in more detail by calculating how areas are linked to each other linguistically.

So for each population center, they find the four other centers that have the most similar linguistic characteristics. They then connect these centers on a map of the US to visualize the links. The direction of these links provides an important clue.

By plotting the distribution of directions, the team show that links are more common between places that are at similar latitudes. Or in other words, there is a linguistic boundary between the north and south of the US. Burridge and co say one reason for this could be historical—the colonization of the US took place largely in an east-to-west direction.

Fortnite: visit furthest North, South, East, West points

But another possibility is that transport links are stronger in this direction, making it easier for linguistic variations to spread. But which of these effects played the bigger role? To tease this question apart, Burridge and co turn to a powerful but poorly understood phenomenon in the physics of complex systems—self-organization. Physicists have long noticed that complex systems can self-organize in a way that creates boundaries.

For example, in low-temperature magnets, magnetic domains often form into stripes. Curiously, the shape of the magnet determines the number and direction of the stripes.

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