PDF Physics and mathematics of the 2nd law of thermodynamics

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To achieve this, the researchers used a Peltier element, a component commonly used, for example, to cool minibars in hotel rooms.

Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics

These elements can transform electric currents into temperature differences. The researchers had already used this type of element in previous experiments, in connection with an electric inductor, to create an oscillating heat current in which the flow of heat between two bodies perpetually changed direction. In this scenario, heat also temporarily flows from a colder to a warmer object so that the colder object is cooled down further.

This kind of "thermal oscillating circuit" in effect contains a "thermal inductor. Until now, Schilling's team had only operated these thermal oscillating circuits using an energy source.

Thermodynamic magic enables cooling without energy consumption

The researchers have now shown for the first time that this kind of thermal oscillating circuit can also be operated "passively," i. Despite this, the authors were also able to show that the process does not actually contradict any laws of physics. To prove it, they considered the change in entropy of the whole system and showed that it increased with time -- fully in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.

The passive thermal circuit could also be used as often as desired, without the need to connect it to a power supply. However, Schilling admits that a large-scale application of the technique is still a long way off. One reason for this is that the Peltier elements currently available are not efficient enough. Furthermore, the current set-up requires the use of superconducting inductors to minimize electric losses.

The UZH physicist considers the work more significant than a mere "proof-of-principle" study: "At first sight, the experiments appear to be a kind of thermodynamic magic, thereby challenging to some extent our traditional perceptions of the flow of heat. Materials provided by University of Zurich. Note: Content may be edited for style and length. Science News.

Maths in a minute: The second law of thermodynamics | maymimasfigh.ml

Cooling below room temperature The results of a recent experiment carried out by the research group of Prof. Creating oscillating heat currents To achieve this, the researchers used a Peltier element, a component commonly used, for example, to cool minibars in hotel rooms.


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Story Source: Materials provided by University of Zurich. This means that "One" and "Two" have to be in equilibrium with each other. A First Law The first law of thermodynamics is a little simpler. The first law states that when heat is added to a system, some of that energy stays in the system and some leaves the system. The energy that leaves does work on the area around it. Energy that stays in the system creates an increase in the internal energy of the system.

In English: you have a pot of water at room temperature. You add some heat to the system. First, the temperature and energy of the water increases. Second, the system releases some energy and it works on the environment maybe heating the air around the water, making the air rise.

The Contention

A Second Law The big finish! The second law of thermodynamics explains that it is impossible to have a cyclic repeating process that converts heat completely into work. It is also impossible to have a process that transfers heat from cool objects to warm objects without using work. Some amount of energy in a reaction is always lost to heat. Also, a system can not convert all of its energy to working energy.

Laws of thermodynamics

The second part of the law is more obvious. A cold body can't heat up a warm body. Heat naturally wants to flow from warmer to cooler areas. Heat wants to flow and spread out to areas with less heat.

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