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This is not unusual as there is no one Stanislavskian system.

The former is often associated with using personal experiences and memories to bring an emotional truth to character and requires total immersion in the world of the play, while the latter usually combines emotional memory with a method of physical action that focuses on bodily rhythms as a trigger for emotion. This consequently resulted in his students orally transmitting his ideas as they developed. Mitchell assisted her actors in achieving such accuracy by employing three primary techniques: creating an extensive backstory for the production; constructing detailed psychological profiles for each character; and rehearsing the play with a focus on the biology of emotions, 19 all of which I will now discuss in depth to contextualize my upcoming performance analysis.

Mitchell assisted her actors in creating a psychologically realistic backstory by completing extensive research and writing exhaustive timelines for each character and event in the play. These exceptionally detailed timelines demonstrate how paramount it was for Mitchell to portray a realistic situation, and the personal information included, such as births, deaths, and marriages, proves that practitioners do indeed contemplate the biographies of their characters.

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To ensure that the actors understood the psychological motivations of their characters, as well as their personal backstory and that of the play, Mitchell met with a psychologist during the rehearsal period and developed profiles for each character. The psychologist noted, amongst other things that: Cassandra might be manic depressive, as some sufferers believe they can predict the future; Hecuba must have had post-natal depression to have given up Paris earlier in the myth cycle 21 ; and the chorus might display symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder triggered by the immediate circumstances of the play.

The writings of James and Damasio pushed Mitchell to work on emotions in rehearsal by recreating the physical response they invoke in the body. Mitchell utilized a number of rehearsal exercises to apply these innovative acting techniques to Women of Troy. She describes this process as follows: Select an idea and ask the actors to think of a moment in their lives that relates to or embodies that idea.

The Past and Present as Prologue: Future Warfare through the Lens of Contemporary Conflicts

Ask them to imagine that their life is a very long film and encourage them to present a few minutes of that film exactly as it happened, without edits or corrections. Ask the actors to recall what happened, how it happened, when it happened and where. First, encourage the actors to make links between what happened in the exercise and moments or characters in the play.

The cognitive turn, however, will undoubtedly continue to permeate research in reception studies and performance studies in the future. Taking into account the insights gained from applying cognitive science to Greek tragedy in practice, no matter how much the resulting performances depart from the text, can only help further clarify ideas gained through other forms of scholarly inquiry. This revealed the setting: a cavernous space with a wooden floor, stone support beams, and corrugated iron patching covering the ground floor windows. Uncovered windows in a walled-in mezzanine revealed the shadow of another woman upstairs, pacing.

Ladders against the stage left and right walls and a service lift upstage connecting the stage to the mezzanine implied the action was taking place in a warehouse environment and the soundscape, which incorporated ship horns and ocean noises coming from stage left, denoted that the location was a contemporary shipping port. The barrenness of the room revealed it to be a makeshift holding bay.

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In the opening moment, the women fidgeted, smoked cigarettes, and re-applied their make-up, which, combined with the pacing of the woman upstairs, implied a feeling of anxiety and a sense of entrapment. The women showed signs of a recent struggle: bruises were beginning to show on their flesh and their hair was matted and dishevelled. This was juxtaposed against their black tie costuming of floor-length evening gowns, high heels, and clutch purses.


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The relative number of Greek men to Trojan women, and their bureaucratic costuming of dark suits and clipboards, made them an imposing presence. The men proceeded briskly to inform Hecuba which Greek men she and her daughters had been assigned to as slaves, regularly consulting their clipboards efficiently to indicate their administrative, rather than decision-making, position within the Greek army. A fire alarm and accompanying red flashing lights interrupted this action and prompted the men to exit.

Stanislavskian theory dictates that a formal analytic process must be applied to a script to outline the world of the play. I hoped that the production would therefore speak to the situation in Iraq now … and raise questions about the behaviour of victors and victims alike in a post-war environment. Through this engagement Women of Troy joined a history of politically resistant productions of Troades.

Mitchell positioned the interactions and exchanges between the Greek soldiers and the Trojan prisoners of war as the throughaction of Women of Troy. They are now on the ground having to deal with collateral damage. The play was triggered by his sense of moral outrage at what troops from his country had done to another country. For example, Mitchell specified to the actors that the play was set in the future, while staging it in a set visually based upon the architecture of modern shipping ports.

She combined this with s-style costumes and music. Rather than confuse the audience, this mismatch of temporalities gave the impression that the action of the play could be happening anywhere, at anytime, and implied a cyclical notion of history with the events of the play repeating themselves in ancient Greece, the Second World War, the current Iraq war, and potentially again in the future. Such a reception is more likely to reproduce the type of experiential feeling or response that one associates with these plays than a reception that fetishizes difference by being overly reverent to a fixed idea of a hermetically sealed Euripidean meaning.

The elaborate backstories allow the actors and audience to comprehend the performative representation of the story as they would any modern dramatic representation. However, the exotragic prediction by the gods, which states that the Greek fleet will be shipwrecked on their homeward journey, was absent. Although Mitchell omitted the narrative content relating to the notion of divine retribution for sacrilegious crimes, her interpretation of the material consistently foregrounded the overall idea of a tragic reversal of fate.

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Furthermore, the social dance that featured in the opening segment of the play and on several other occasions during the production testifies to how her Stanislavskian approach emphasized the altered status of the Trojan women, here by focusing audience attention upon the absent male partners.

The use of social dance became the signifier of something other, unspoken yet visible, and physically felt by the audience. While the Greek soldiers attempted to restrain her, she delivered her lines. She alternated between singing her lines and speaking to them at an unnaturally fast pace in a high-pitched voice, which resulted in them being incomprehensible. After Hecuba had removed the matches from her, Cassandra then climbed atop a table and removed her evening dress by pulling it down to her ankles. She stood, naked, delivering her prophecy in the same diction as before, while the chorus members attempted to re-dress her before the Greeks forced her offstage.

Yet, the performative rendering of this scene allowed numerous other meanings unrelated to the exotragic prediction to be brought to the fore via non-linguistic means.


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The torches visually symbolize an Erinys, 65 a label Euripides has Cassandra attribute to herself later in the scene []. In performance, however, the power of this visual reinforcement is limited; even if Mitchell had retained the two flaming torches it is unlikely that the audience would have understood the symbolism of an avenging Erinys. In place of this, Mitchell has created a more general image of destruction and a psychologically realistic representation of mania.

This was first evident in the directorial decision to destroy Troy not through fire, but through an explosion. But reduced land forces might be perceived as less credible in terms of commitment and deterrence. The basic building blocks are displayed in the third column of table 2. It incorporates the assessments of various think tanks that the U. It provides for a balanced and conventionally oriented joint warfighting force with robust capacity.

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It would be an inherently versatile force with the proper doctrine and training for full-spectrum operations. Capable and balanced joint forces represent the ultimate in conventional deterrence and reassurance of our treaty partners. Land power is an essential element of that joint force and while not the principal force in every scenario, it is critical to strategic results in all campaigns waged on land. This option would reverse recent trends in cutting back on land power.

This force falls far short of what is projected as needed to fight and decisively win two MTWs. Many defense analysts have become comfortable with the four to five Army divisions allocated to an MTW from the s Base Force models and similar analyses.

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Moreover, these frameworks were developed for opponents in an age before the diffusion of advanced military capabilities to middle powers occurred. Both past historical experiences of major wars and projections into the future suggest that larger ground formations, no less than six Army divisions and a reinforced Marine expeditionary force per MTW, would be needed in pacing scenarios in Asia. While the current plan reduces the Army from 5 to 3 heavy divisions—— and reduces the readiness levels and manning of the Army——this option builds up to 12 divisions.

This option yields important political dividends, reassures allies and partners, and makes conflict less likely. This force is also better postured to cope with an MTW that persists beyond 6 months, providing divisions that can be rotated in. Land power will be a component of the force required to win those two conflicts as well as transition to a sustainable, stable peace.

They are an essential part of our joint warfighting portfolio, completely essential to securing strategic effects that U. Unlike the first three options, the two-MTW decisive force option generates sufficient credible combat power forces to reestablish some additive forces outside the continental United States. Additional Army end strength for the two divisions would not necessarily come at the expense of current major procurement programs. A new administration should consider a number of key principles in its force design and development efforts.

These principles are not an exclusive list but offer guidance to steer the U. The ability of U. We will certainly be surprised in the future, so it is our task now to try to plan against the effects of some deeply unsettling surprises. The key to victory here is not the expensive creation of new conceptual, methodological, or electro-mechanical tools of prediction.

Rather it is to pursue defense and security planning on the principles of minimum regrets and considerable flexibility and adaptability. Minimizing regrets is not achieved with better computer-aided powers of prediction or by maximizing investments in a narrow or specific warfighting area. We cannot predict the future with consistent accuracy, and we should not be tempted to believe there is some wonderful methodology that enables American planners to gaze deep into the 21 st century with precision.