Students are often placed into low ability groups based on scores on standardized tests in English and math. Students have voiced frustration that only non-native students have to prove their language skills, when being a native speaker in no way guarantees college level academic literacy.
Dropout rates for ESL students in multiple countries are much higher than dropout rates for native speakers. The National Center for Education Statistics NCES in the United States reported that the percentage of dropouts in the non-native born Hispanic youth population between the ages of 16 and 24 years old is Schools that risk losing funding, closing, or having their principals fired if test scores are not high enough begin to view students that do not perform well on standardized tests as liabilities.
ESL students face several barriers to higher education. Most colleges and universities require four years of English in high school.
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In addition, most colleges and universities only accept one year of ESL English. This results in many ESL students not having the correct credits to apply for college, or enrolling in summer school to finish the required courses. ESL students can also face additional financial barriers to higher education because of their language skills.
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Those that don't place high enough on college placement exams often have to enroll in ESL courses at their universities. In addition, while many ESL students receive a Pell Grant , the maximum grant for the year — covered only about a third of the cost of college. ESL students often have difficulty interacting with native speakers in school. Some ESL students avoid interactions with native speakers because of their frustration or embarrassment at their poor English. Immigrant students often also lack knowledge of popular culture , which limits their conversations with native speakers to academic topics.
These interactions have been found to extend to teacher—student interactions as well. In most mainstream classrooms, teacher-led discussion is the most common form of lesson. In this setting, some ESL students will fail to participate, and often have difficulty understanding teachers because they talk too fast, do not use visual aids, or use native colloquialisms. ESL students also have trouble getting involved with extracurricular activities with native speakers for similar reasons. Students fail to join extra-curricular activities because of the language barrier , cultural emphasis of academics over other activities, or failure to understand traditional pastimes in their new country.
Supporters of ESL programs claim they play an important role in the formation of peer networks and adjustment to school and society in their new homes. Having class among other students learning English as a second language relieves the pressure of making mistakes when speaking in class or to peers. ESL programs also allow students to be among others who appreciate their native language and culture , the expression of which is often not supported or encouraged in mainstream settings.
ESL programs also allow students to meet and form friendships with other non-native speakers from different cultures, promoting racial tolerance and multiculturalism. Peer tutoring refers to an instructional method that pairs up low-achieving English readers, with ESL students that know minimal English and who are also approximately the same age and same grade level.
The goal of this dynamic is to help both the tutor, in this case the English speaker, and the tutee, the ESL student. Monolingual tutors are given the class material in order to provide tutoring to their assigned ESL tutee. Once the tutor has had the chance to help the student, classmates get to switch roles in order to give both peers an opportunity to learn from each other.
In a study, which conducted a similar research, their results indicated that low-achieving readers that were chosen as tutors, made a lot of progress by using this procedure. In addition, ESL students were also able to improve their grades due to the fact that they increased their approach in reading acquisition skills. Since there is not enough funding to afford tutors, and teachers find it hard to educate all students who have different learning abilities, it is highly important to implement peer-tutoring programs in schools.
Students placed in ESL program learn together along with other non-English speakers; however, by using peer tutoring in classroom it will avoid the separation between regular English classes and ESL classes. These programs will promote community between students that will be helping each other grow academically. It was found that students with learning disabilities and low performing students who are exposed to the explicit teaching and peer tutoring treatment in the classroom, have better academic performance than those students who do not receive this type of assistance.
It was proven that peer tutoring is the most effective and no cost form of teaching . It has been proven that peer-mediated tutoring is an effective tool to help ESL students succeed academically. Peer tutoring has been utilized across many different academic courses and the outcomes for those students that have different learning abilities are outstanding. Classmates who were actively involved with other peers in tutoring had better academic standing than those students who were not part of the tutoring program.
It was also found that the literature on the efficacy of peer tutoring service combined with regular classroom teaching, is the best methodology practice that is effective, that benefits students, teachers, and parents involved. Three different approaches were the focus in which immersing students in English from the very beginning and teaching them reading only in that language; teaching students in Spanish first, followed by English; and teaching students to read in Spanish and English simultaneously.
This occurs through a strategic approach such as structured English immersion or sheltered instruction. Findings showed that the paired bilingual reading approach appeared to work as well as, or better than, the English-only reading approach in terms of reading growth and results. Researchers found differences in results, but they also varied based on several outcomes depending on the student's learning abilities and academic performance. Teachers in an ESL class are specifically trained in particular techniques and tools to help students learn English.
Research says that the quality of their teaching methods is what matters the most when it comes to educating English learners. It was also mentioned [ who? There is a high need for comprehensive professional development for teachers in the ESL program. Template:Citatino needed. Although peer tutoring has been proven to be an effective way of learning that engages and promotes academic achievement in students, does it have an effect on the achievement gap? It is an obvious fact that there is a large academic performance disparity between White, Black, and Latino students, and it continues to be an issue that has to be targeted.
However it was mentioned that by developing effective peer tutoring programs in schools could be a factor that can potentially decrease the achievement gap in the United States. Learners of English are often eager to get accreditation and a number of exams are known internationally: . Many countries also have their own exams.
English as a second or foreign language
Between and , the Council of Europe 's language policy division developed its Common European Framework of Reference for Languages. The aim of this framework was to have a common system for foreign language testing and certification, to cover all European languages and countries.
Each of these levels is divided into two sections, resulting in a total of six levels for testing A1, A2, B1, etc. Qualifications vary from one region or jurisdiction to the next. Most people who teach English are in fact not native speakers [ citation needed ]. They are state school teachers in countries around the world, and as such they hold the relevant teaching qualification of their country, usually with a specialization in teaching English.
Those who work in private language schools may, from commercial pressures, have the same qualifications as native speakers see below. Widespread problems exist of minimal qualifications and poor quality providers of training, and as the industry becomes more professional, it is trying to self-regulate to eliminate these.
A certificate course is usually undertaken before starting to teach. Courses are offered in the UK and in many countries around the world. It is usually taught full-time over a one-month period or part-time over a period up to a year. Teachers with two or more years of teaching experience who want to stay in the profession and advance their career prospects including school management and teacher training can take a diploma course. These diplomas are considered to be equivalent and are both accredited at level 7 of the revised National Qualifications Framework.
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Some teachers who stay in the profession go on to do an MA in a relevant discipline such as applied linguistics or ELT. Many UK master's degrees require considerable experience in the field before a candidate is accepted onto the course. The above qualifications are well-respected within the UK EFL sector, including private language schools and higher education language provision. Often this requires completing an eight-month graduate certificate program at an accredited university or college.
Some U. In many areas of the United States , a growing number of K public school teachers are involved in teaching ELLs English Language Learners, that is, children who come to school speaking a home language other than English. The qualifications for these classroom teachers vary from state to state but always include a state-issued teaching certificate for public instruction.
This state licensing requires substantial practical experience as well as course work. This may be called an "endorsement". Endorsement programs may be part of a graduate program or may be completed independently to add the endorsement to the initial teaching certificate. It is important to determine if a graduate program is designed to prepare teachers for adult education or K education. A program will also likely have specific classes on skills such as reading, writing, pronunciation, and grammar. Many graduate students also participate in teaching practica or clinicals, which provide the opportunity to gain experience in classrooms.
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In addition to traditional classroom teaching methods, speech pathologists, linguists, actors, and voice professionals are actively involved in teaching pronunciation of American English—called accent improvement, accent modification, and accent reduction—and serve as resources for other aspects of spoken English, such as word choice. It is important to note that the issuance of a teaching certificate or license for K teachers is not automatic following completion of degree requirements. All teachers must complete a battery of exams typically the Praxis test or a specific state test subject and method exams or similar, state-sponsored exams as well as supervised instruction as student teachers.
Often, ESL certification can be obtained through extra college coursework.